1. Malthusian Population Theories
- Malthus argued that "Population grow at a rate that exceeds available food supply"
- Population can survive only because of positive checks on population growth. That is, in mortality due to famines, epidemics, wars and natural causes, preventive checks e.g. abstinence and contraception.
- Contemporary follower of the Malthus ideas
3. Marxist Theories
- In Marx's view, population growth is closely linked to the mode of production and level of development.
- He argued that there are too many poor people due to capitalist exploitation.
- Proper economic and social arrangements could accommodate population growth.
4. Demographic Transition Theory
- Follow demographic theory of Europe.
- When the population has a high rate and high death rate that population will not grow. That is, population growth is equal to zero.
This theory has four stages
- Stage I : Low Growth
-If the population has a very high and varied birth and death rates due to poverty and poor sanitation, there will be virtually low population growth.
-Most of human history was spent in stage I.
-Currently there is no stage I country today.
- Stage II : High Growth
-In this stage, Death rate drops due to: Improved sanitation and food nutrients.
-Countries in Europe and North America entered stage II in the late 18th-19th century.
- Stage III : Moderate Growth
-Birth rate begins to drop sharply due to industrialization and changing attitudes towards ideal family size.
-Death rate continues to fall but at a much lower rate than in stage II.
-Population continue to grow at a more moderate rate.
-Countries in Europe and North America entered this Stage during the first half of the 20th century. Some countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America entered Stage III recently.
- Stage IV : Low Growth
-Birth rate decline to the point where it almost equals to the death rate.
-Natural growth rate approaches to zero.
-Sweden, Denmark, Germany, U.K have entered stage IV
STRENGTH OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY
- Strongly descriptively.
- It provides trends in birth and death rate in western countries during the Industrial Revolution.
- Demographic transition, as a framework is useful for classifying population. Example, developing nations belong in stage I or II while developed nations fit in stage III or IV.
- Demographic transition has predict population growth.
WEAKNESS OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY
- Poor explanation of population change, it does not specify mechanism of such change.
- Progress through demographic transition is not automatic.
- It fails to account for any reversal that might occur in the process.
- It is silent on the role of migration.
5. Epidemiological Transition Theory
- Explains pattern of health and disease and its influence to mortality.
- Base on patterns experienced in developed countries.
Has four stages
- Predominant of famine and pestilence
- Decline of infectious diseases.
- Rise of degenerative diseases.
- Rise of "hubristic" behavior (smoking, unprotected sex)
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